With emerging standards requiring different forms of Zero Net Energy and aggressive owners developing ZNE buildings already it's an important time to look at the potential impacts net metered buildings can have on the historic grid structure and operations. High penetration of renewable energy can destabilize the grid operations and cause havoc for grid operators.

We'll provide a detailed discussion of the different definitions of ZNE and how they impact design and interaction with the grid. We'll outline current issues with high penetration of renewables on Hawaii's grid structure and how they may apply to ZNE building design for larger grid systems. We will provide building strategies that can enhance ZNE building design participation with the grid such as battery storage with renewables, demand response, thermal energy storage, and controls. Finally the team will outline ongoing changes to the grid structures and enhancements needed to prepare the grid for true ZNE buildings on a mass scale.

Learning Objectives

  • Analyze Zero Net Energy definitions: energy cost, site energy, source energy, emissions, and California’s TDV ZNE including the different definitions of ZNE which all have special impacts on grid stability.
  • Understand historical grid challenges, current trends with renewable energy expansion on the grid, and examples of challenges with high penetration of renewable energy on Hawaii’s grid structure.
  • Understand key building design elements that can enhance the participation with the grid system, which includes renewable energy systems, battery & thermal storage, demand response, controls, and others.
  • Understand changes in the grid structure that need to happen to allow the system to handle large scale and large quantities of Zero Net Energy buildings.

Pre-requisite: None.